日時:2007年7月1日(日) 13:00 - 15:00

・Yokohama Shashin and Representation of Japan in the Late Nineteenth Century Visual Culture/佐藤守弘(京都精華大学)
・Landscapes and the Logistics of Vision in Meiji Japan/Gyewon Kim(McGill University)


When Karatani Kōjin argues that landscape was discovered at a specific moment in the emergence of interiority, he infers that landscape can no longer be considered in the guise of external scenery alone. Rather, it relates to the discovery of a peculiar modern subjectivity that emerges, becomes constructed, and achieves consolidation by facing the landscape out there. The discovery of landscape was also concurrent with the discovery of the other, which was inevitably objectified and dominated in such subjective formation. Hence it is not a mere coincidence that landscape was discovered in the third decade of Meiji Japan, just at the moment it was forced to encounter Western others, and was obliged to examine its interiority per se. At this very moment, however, another conception of landscape was constructed by means of the thorough scrutiny of others’ space, that is, the colonial others. In this session, we examine how the Japanese landscape was discovered through double or simultaneous encounters with different others, and how this doubleness affords a starting point for the inquiries launched in this session. We attempt to situate the question of landscape historically by mapping out concrete geographies of others’ space, including those of Manchuria, Korea, Hokkaido and various sites within Japan under the gaze of the West. In exploring these different geographies, we aim to articulate how the Japanese Empire achieved its distinctive cultural and national identities through a specific set of spatial discourses and representations.(パネル構成:Gyewon Kim)

Yokohama Shashin and Representation of Japan in the Late Nineteenth Century Visual Culture/佐藤守弘(京都精華大学)

Yokohama Shashin are the photographic images that were produced mainly in Yokohama from the 1860s to the end of the nineteenth century. Mounted on paper and bound as albums, they were sold as souvenirs for the tourists from the West or exported to Europe and America. In the beginning, the Western photographers such as Felix Beato (1834-c.1903) and Baron von Stillfried (1839-1911) produced such images. Later, Japanese photographers produced colorful hand-tinted photographs. Recently, many books on Yokohama Shashin are published one after another. These books, however, deal with the photographs as historical documents, or "truthful" visual records. In other words, Yokohama photographs are regarded as transparent media and the aesthetic features and ideological and political significance of Yokohama photographs are both unrecognized.

My paper will treat Yokohama Shashin as a form of visual culture produced and consumed in a specific social context. I will suggest the function of landscape representations of Yokohama Photographs was primarily to report the topographical information of the unknown terrain, or Other's site, based on the empirical knowledge of geographical science. Still, the mode of representation was heavily depending on the canon of the picturesque developed in the eighteenth century Europe. Photography was an important component of the newly emerged form of visual culture in the late nineteenth century, namely, tourism in the age of imperialism. The aim of my paper is to place Yokohama Shashin in the context of colonial landscape photography, indicating the relationships between international expositions, tourism and photography.

Landscapes and the Logistics of Vision in Meiji Japan/Gyewon Kim(McGill University)

This paper takes its cue from two different landscapes photographed during the early Meiji period. One was taken by a group of photographers during the Hokkaido Reclamation (1869-1898), while Kotō Bunjirō, a geologist, shot the other during his geographical expedition in Korea (1900-1906). Despite the differences in agencies, locations, and purposes, these two photographic practices share common pictorial qualities, photographic technologies, and instrumental functions. By contrast, however, I focus on the other domain they have in common, that is, the way in which they are engaged in the construction of imaginative geographies of Empire. Emerging from the new fields of the modern sciences and their institutional practices, both landscapes participate in the formation of knowledge, scientific/instrumental discourses, and in the technologies of territorial domination. More importantly, the two landscapes chart the imaginative geographies of Empire by seemingly operating as neutral, objective, and truthful eyes, or ostensibly recording the unknown, untouchable territories of Others. By juxtaposing the landscapes created at Hokkaido and in Korea, I try to problematize a classic perspective on colonial photography, which conceives it as a surrogate for colonial ideology. Rather, it works on a more complex terrain where ideologies of modernity, contrasting hegemonies of vision, and multiple investigative modalities, intersect and become co-extensive with one another. This paper tries to elucidate how the two landscapes get ‘played out’ or represented in this wider discursive space, constituting a specific visual logistics, which serves the imaginative geographies of the Meiji Empire.